Content Summary for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Infographic
TBI is a leading cause of death and disability in the U.S.
1.7 million people suffer traumatic brain injury every year.
Most susceptible to a TBI*: Children under 4 years old, adolescents between the ages 15 and 19, and the elderly.
Men are three times more likely than women to die from a TBI.
Causes of TBI.
Sudden trauma to the brain by an impact, jolt or penetration to the head.
Damage to the brain may occur at the time of the accident or over time.
The most common situations resulting in brain injuries:
- Automobile accidents
- Slip and Falls
- Intentional Assault & Battery
- Medical errors
Symptoms of Mild TBIs
- Ringing in the ears
- Blurred vision or tired eyes
- Bad taste in the mouth
- Fatigue or lethargy
- Trouble with attention, concentration, thinking, or memory
- Behavioral changes
- Mood changes
- Sleep pattern changes
- Temporary loss of consciousness
Symptoms of severe cases (in addition to the above symptoms)
- Persistent headache that does not go away
- Nausea or vomiting
- Seizures or convulsions
- Dilation of one or both pupils
- Slurred speech
- Unable to awaken from sleep
- Loss of coordination
- Numbness or weakness in the extremities
- Increased restlessness, agitation or confusion
Effects of TBI ?
Approximately 50% of victims with severe TBI will require surgery.
Common disabilities include:
- Problems with cognition (thinking, memory, and reasoning),
- Sensory processing (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell),
- Communication (expression and understanding),
- Behavior or mental health (depression, anxiety, personality changes, aggression, acting out, and social inappropriateness).
More serious head injuries may result in:
- Stupor, an unresponsive state, but one in which an individual can be aroused briefly by a strong stimulus, such as sharp pain;
- Coma, a state in which an individual is totally unconscious, unresponsive, unaware, and unarousable;
- Vegetative state, in which an individual is unconscious and unaware of his or her surroundings, but continues to have a sleep-wake cycle and periods of alertness; and
- Persistent Vegetative State (PVS), in which an individual remains in a vegetative state for more than a month.
Reduce the chances of experiencing a TBI:
- Buckle children in a car using an approved child safety seat, booster seat, or seat belt (according to the child’s height, weight, and age).
- Make sure your children (and you yourself) wear helmets when:
- Riding a bike, motorized bike, scooter, horse, ATV, snowmobile, etc
- Using in-line skates or skateboards;
- Playing contact sports;
- Batting and running bases in baseball;
- Skiing or snowboarding.
- Safeguard areas for children:
- Install window guards to protect young children from falling out of open windows;
- Use safety gates at the top and bottom of stairs;
- Make sure the surface on your child’s playground is made of shock-absorbing material.
- Safeguard living areas safer for seniors:
- Remove trip hazards such as throw rugs and clutter;
- Use non-slip mats in the bathtub and on shower floors;
- Install grab bars next to the toilet and in the tub or shower;
- Install handrails on both sides of stairways; and
- Improve lighting throughout the home.
- Wear a seat belt every time you drive or ride in a motor vehicle.
- Never drive while under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
- Do not allow yourself to get distracted, tired or otherwise reckless while driving.
Traumatic brain injuries are very complex situations from both a medical and legal perspective.
Lawsuits seeking financial compensation for injuries need to be filed before an applicable expiration date known as the Statute of Limitations
* National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: